Thursday, February 11, 2010

Oran (Algeria)

Excavations in the caves of Cuartel and Kouchet el Djir have proved that human occupation in the area dates back from Paleolithic times. Oran was a centre of Ibero-Maurusian industry (10.120 — 8.550 BC) : it's unknown either this culture emerged as a result of migration of Cro-Magnon people from the Iberian peninsula, hence the name, or from the local Aterian culture. Around 5.000 BC, new populations akin to Berber Tuaregs are allegedly believed to reach the area.

Known as Unica Colonia under the Romans, Oran was founded under this name in 903 by Moorish Andalusi traders but was captured by the Spanish in 1509. After about two centuries of Ottoman occupation, it fell to the French in the 19th century.




Addendum : Y-DNA in the Western Mediterranean


  • Sample :
Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 :
Dark complexion (black eyes, black hair, tanned skin, ...), leptomorphic, arched convex nose (droopy tip), close-set eyes, full lips, deeply drawn lines around the oral cavity
~ Mediterranean




This phenotype is dubbed "Arabid" by most authors. A rarer and depigmented variant approaches many European types :



More classical and robust Mediterranean types are to be found : rectangular face, large jaw, lower-rooted straight nose, ...





- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (pinky cheeks, light green-grey eyes, ...), brachymorphic, very large face, little and low-rooted nose that can get convex, wide forehead, bulbous temples, large and strong jaws, close-set eyes (rather little eyelids)
~ Cro-Magnoid



The 4th man exhibits very "Berberid" traits : general coarse features, a massive and broad nose, light green eyes, streaked skin, bulbous temples, ... In this sample, at least, it seems to be a male subtype. Somehow, there may be counterparts to this type in parts of Portugal. Women that could broadly fall in this category are best described as Type 3.


- Type 3 : Dark complexion (black eyes, black hair, ...), brachymorphic, large face, little and low-rooted nose, close-set eyes
~ Alpino-Mediterranean




This type is not uncommon in some areas of Spain.


  • Final morphotypes :

13 comments:

  1. Most look very Iberian to me. The more different ones are those you dubbed Arabid, the rest would all pass unnoticed at Madrid. Maybe the Alpino-Med men (but not the women), look more specifically "Andalusian", and hence may reflect a more archetypal North African typology.

    The individual you say who exhibits "Berberid" type is also not unusual in Iberia (though guess can also be found elsewhere in the Med). However the first of the "Cro-Magnoid" men looks very markedly Jewish (or otherwise West Asian maybe?) By contrast the two men to his right look close to Basque types.

    Btw, congrats for your new blog. :)

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  2. Congratulations on your new blog! I'm a fan of Anthroeurope and I was looking forward to something similar that covered the whole world!

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  3. Just one question. How do you collect the sample photographs? Do you actually click them yourself (which would be a lot of hard work and money) or do you pick them up randomly from the internet?

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  4. Félicitation pour ce nouveau blog! Vous m'avez fait une belle surprise aujourd'hui quand je me suis connecté sur Internet!

    Alors voilà, j'ai deux questions. (Désolé si je n'écris pas en anglais sur votre blog qui est anglophone.)

    Première question :
    Quand vous mettez ce symbole « ~ », si je comprends bien cela signifie « plus ou moins »? Je ne suis pas un expert avec les types extra-européens mais j’essaie d’élargir mes horizons depuis quelques mois. Donc, si j’ai bien compris le type 1 est Méditerranéen. Certains auteurs parlerons même de Méditerranéen du sud (South Mediterranean), si je ne me trompe pas? Et même certains auteurs parleront de Saharid pour expliquer le mélange entre mediterranid et arabid? D’ailleurs les 6 premières photos me font croire que les hommes sont plutôt arabid et les femmes sont saharid. Les cinq suivantes sont comme vous le dite plus classique et correspond à des mediterranid.

    Deuxième question :
    J’ai déjà eu une discussion il y a de ça… hum… environ 1 mois avec un monsieur marocain. Il m’avait l’air de connaitre très bien les peuples et les grandes familles du Maghreb. (Par exemple, il pouvait sans aucun problème me dire de quel région était originaire certains patronyme marocain et algérien.)

    En discutant avec lui, il m’a expliqué que les Algériens étaient dans plusieurs cas (et dans certaines régions précises) moitié arabe/kabyle/berbère et moitié pied-noir (français, espagnol, italien, juifs). Je me suis étonné d’une telle affirmation. Je me suis dit intérieurement : Est-il possible que ce soit une petite guéguerre entre algériens et marocains? Ou un préjugé? Ou encore un mythe de la colonisation que les Arabes garde secrètement entre eux mais qu’au fond… les peuples du Moyen-Orient se doute que les Algériens sont un peu différent d’eux? Je me suis aussi dit qu’il ne faudrait pas qu’un Algérien entend ça! haha

    Je me suis dit alors que ça pourrait expliquer pourquoi chaque fois que je vois un Algérien je suis capable de le différencier assez rapidement d’un Marocain. Ils sont plutôt pâles et les traits du visage sont ceux qui tirent le plus vers l’Europe de tous les Magrébins.
    Ce n’est d’ailleurs pas la première fois que je verrai une telle situation dans ma vie. Puisque j’habite en Amérique comme vous le savez et les gens qui se revendiquent d’origine amérindienne sont… comment dire? Très dilué dans certaines régions… (Particulièrement, les régions qui longent le fleuve du Saint-Laurent.) Des fois, certains d’entre eux n’ont que 3% d’origines amérindienne et 97% d’origine française et vivent dans des réserves autochtones et sont même élu chef.

    Bon... désolé c'est très long à lire je sais! J'attends votre réponse!

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  5. @VG : I do browse the Internet searching for pics of people who went to school in the area I'm sampling then I only select those with autochtonous surnames. This condition must be quite harsh to fully work. That means no "Dupont" for France since it's too widespread : only very local surnames. Sometimes, it's not possible because locals are in minority.

    @NTQ : De nombreuses questions.

    1. Franchement, et beaucoup de gens ne le comprennent pas qui visitent mon blog, je ne crois pas véritablement dans la typologie. Non pas que je pense qu'il n'y a pas des types physiques plus ou moins répandus (c'est l'évidence même) mais je sais que je ne possède pas le vocabulaire pour décrire correctement les variétés locales. Du simple fait que ces régions ont été peu étudiées par les auteurs classiques. Et que quand cela fut fait, c'est avec de nombreuses contradictions dans les termes.

    Alors pourquoi "~" ? C'est une précaution rhétorique, j'essaie de définir des types (c'est pas facile : j'ai 32 photos face à moi, il me faut réduire tout cela à quelques types, selon les régions ce peut être très difficile) et puis je balance à tout hasard ce que je crois être la traduction du type défini en langage classique anthropologique. Ma seule hantise, c'est que certains s'imaginent que la présence d'un type méditerranéen dans une région implique une filiation avec d'autres types méditerranéens ailleurs. La typologie n'est qu'une description statique, je suis bien incapable de dire l'origine de ces types.

    En fait, dans l'idéal, j'aimerais définir mes propres types en faisant abstraction totalement des types anthropologiques classiques. Je tente un peu ça en France où je parviens à définir des types, genre poitevin, basque, normand et peu importe au fond s'ils relèvent d'un canevas alpinoïde, atlanto-méditerranéen ou atlantide.

    2. Je pense que ce que votre interlocuteur marocain a signifié, c'est que les Algériens sont les "Français du Maghreb" psychologiquement. Obsession unitaire, réflexe centralo-administratif, politisation extrême, sensibilité romantique nationale, ... Parce que pour ce qui est de la généalogie des Algériens, ceux-ci sont des autochtones à part entière, il n'y a eu que très peu de mariages avec la population pied-noire (constituée d'Italiens, de Maltais et d'Espagnols, avec un léger adstrat français).

    Pour la suite, il est évidence que l'Algérie est un pays berbère, arabisé plus ou moins fortement selon les régions. Il y a de nombreux articles sur la question sur Persée :

    http://www.persee.fr/

    Pour ce qui est de la question de la différenciation Maroc/Algérie, oui, dès lors que l'on est en contact avec des ressortissants de ces pays, on parvient nettement à entrevoir une différence. Il est possible dès lors que l'imaginaire populaire attribue ces caractéristiques physiques à un apport européen récent pied-noir. Il n'en est rien. Je n'ai pas d'hypothèses à fournir, il est possible que l'Algérie fasse état de liens anciens avec l'Ibérie via la culture ibéro-maurusienne. Il ne faut pas non plus sous-estimer l'apport sub-saharien au Maroc via la traite négrière, cependant, il ne me semble pas que la question se pose en ces termes : les types physiques marocains qui véritablement tranchent sont le fait d'individus qui rappellent assez certains types physiques éthiopiens. Je vais tenter de traiter le Maroc ici.

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  6. "Certains auteurs parlerons même de Méditerranéen du sud (South Mediterranean), si je ne me trompe pas? Et même certains auteurs parleront de Saharid pour expliquer le mélange entre mediterranid et arabid?"

    I would agree roughly (only roughly) with this. While the typology of Northern Europe was upon its time (early 20th century) dissected to really minimalist levels, the typology of the Mediterranean was oversimplified, creating much confusion. The same happened with the typologies of other regions (South Asia, Africa, East Asia...), that without doubt include a much larger variety.

    Coon and the like were after all not alien to the (normal) feeling of ethno-narcissism, that makes all of my group be known to great detail and all of other groups be dumped in large categories. For many people in Europe "all Chinese look the same" when they actually do not. Being unable to discern the differences does not make them disappear.

    A whole new systematization should be done if anthropometrists want their categories be of any use and not just matter of mockery.

    On the fine detail of this particular type, I'd say that the two men that look neatly West Asian to me are the "Mediterranean" #3 and the "Cro-Magnoid" #1. Both look Palestinian specifically, the first Arabic and the latter Jewish. The "Cro-Magnoid" is obviously not such thing in any case (some sort of Med-Alpinid instead).

    In contrast many "Mediterranean" individuals look Cromagnid to me:

    -man #2 of first row (a Robust "Nordid" type, IMO, even if very tanned and with marked "dry" lips, approaching the Saharid type you say - West Asian types instead have usually "wet" lips, with the lower one prominent).
    - man #2 of second row
    - man #2 of third row

    In contrast the first row of "cromagnids" all look Alpinoid to me, even if one could argue for some affinities.

    I have more difficulty categorizing women but I fully agree that the three Mediterranid ones are a single North African type. This type seems to be less fleshy than the West Asian dominant kind, tough again there is a whole array of variability and Moroccan (Berber?) women often have a very distinctive look of their own. All this wealth of detail is lost in the classical anthropometric categories, once we leave Northern Europe.

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  7. "Je me suis dit alors que ça pourrait expliquer pourquoi chaque fois que je vois un Algérien je suis capable de le différencier assez rapidement d’un Marocain".

    Partly true but not so easy, the same that it's not always easy to pick apart a Spaniard from an Italian, for example. But there is no doubt some differences. Many differences anyhow run across regions within the countries.

    This might be explained in part by prehistory and genetics. For example Moroccans hold much more Y-DNA E1b1b1 than other North Africans, while Tunisians instead have more J1, the other great North African lineage. Algerians would be intermediate.

    There are also differences in mtDNA though I understand they run more across regions within the states, rather than in any particular gradient.

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  8. "This might be explained in part by prehistory and genetics. For example Moroccans hold much more Y-DNA E1b1b1 than other North Africans, while Tunisians instead have more J1, the other great North African lineage. Algerians would be intermediate "

    no doubt,but, If you pay a close attention to the region's map, you should be able to notice that most of the Algerians and Tunisians live farther north than most of the moroccans...
    in my opinion both latitude and altitude plays an important role in shaping the phynotype...the Kabyles have both,and that what I think that distinguish them from other north african groups...

    Azerwal (from the Rif)

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  9. It's very possible that Azerbal is at least partly right. There was a recent paper on Mediterranean genetics (certain specific autosomal regions) that seems to place Southern Moroccans from the High Atlas as more "genuinely North African" than other groups including Northern Moroccans from Bouhria.

    So there may be a more generically Eurasian layer and more specifically North African layer. Sadly a mere PC analysis is not enough to elucidate this matter completely.

    However Mozabites, a well studied southern Algerian population, known to have a noticeable amount of trans-Saharan genetics, cluster with the "northern" group, what suggests that the structure may well be very complex and worth a specific study or several.

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  10. "However Mozabites, a well studied southern Algerian population, known to have a noticeable amount of trans-Saharan genetics, cluster with the "northern" group, what suggests that the structure may well be very complex and worth a specific study or several."

    the mozabites migrated from Tiaret west Algeria (Oranie),they are a religious community of the Kharijite- Ibadi who are known to oppose the orthodox Arab-centred Islam,anyhow, one can compare their experience to for example, the mormons in Utah....

    "So there may be a more generically Eurasian layer and more specifically North African layer. Sadly a mere PC analysis is not enough to elucidate this matter completely"
    I tend to agree, however, genetics as you may suspect, can not explain everything, in fact one can easily observe the never ending controversies in the field ( by the way thank you for posting Mark Pluciennik paper)...
    bottom line,no one out there can prove that the Atlas mountain range was ever uninhabited....
    and the "European" looking type in north Africa may well be evolved in situ ....but no one out there is even trying to consider that possibility.
    "experts" always link north African blondism to the "eurasian" gene input, and yet, they never question the west asian ones who are found in the same latitude as north africa (syria ,south Anatolia,IRan , Afghanistan ,,,,)
    also, I do have another remark about the OOA theory, why does the arrow always have to come from south saharan Africa, when the closest distance to the exit .is the green mountain in cyrenaica, Lybia, at the eastern end of the Atlas mountain range ?

    I may be wrong,but who knows..

    Azerwal

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  11. All I say is about Mozabites (whose presence in the 'open source' global sample by Rosenberg has resulted in many apparitions in the most diverse papers) is that the systematically show a small but meaningful and consistent affinity with ultra-Saharan Africans (much as Finnics and Northern Russians show some affinity to Siberian/East Asians/Native Americans).

    "in fact one can easily observe the never ending controversies in the field"...

    But the really endless controversy is about the molecular clock. The rest is not 100% out of error, bias, etc. but is quite reliable, IMO.

    "bottom line,no one out there can prove that the Atlas mountain range was ever uninhabited"....

    I would rather suspect the opposite, even if the coastal zones may have hosted greater densities. However the Atlas may have also acted as refuge, much like other mountain areas around the world, retaining maybe better the signature of the oldest layers than the more accessible coastal areas.

    "and the "European" looking type in north Africa may well be evolved in situ" ....

    Honestly, there's at least 25% of mtDNA in North Africa (counting only haplogroup H) that has a quite clear SW European origin and probably arrived there at the genesis of Oranian (Iberomaurusian), via Iberia. If we add K and V, we can say that the greatest share of North African mtDNA has at least a clear European affinity and very possibly origin. However there are also African-specific lineages, be them Eurasian-derived (U6, M1) or genuinely African (L(xM,N).


    Instead, the bulk of Y-DNA is African-original E1b1b1 and West Asian original J1. My best hunch is that these two Y-DNA lineages arrived late in prehistory (Late Paleolithic to Neolithic) along with some African mtDNA, from the Nile (Capsian culture, Afroasiatic languages) and somehow replaced almost totally the pre-existent Y-DNA (but not the mtDNA). But I'm not really sure.

    ""experts" always link north African blondism to the "eurasian" gene input"...

    Well, it's clear that North African genetics are essentially Eurasian (several layers it seems). It's also clear that there are no blondisms in Africa, so it makes some sense.

    (continues)

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  12. (continued from above)

    "also, I do have another remark about the OOA theory, why does the arrow always have to come from south saharan Africa"...

    Because the geography of mtDNA structure (specially) points to a proto-Eurasian 'craddle' not far from Ethiopia, Sudan... I made my own reconstruction here, which is not substantially different from what academic research says. This "proto-Eurasian" population is also ancestral to most Africans also if we consider it sensu lato (L2"6) and to many of them anyhow, if we consider it sensu stricto (L3).

    I do think that some L(xM,N) lineages "trespassed" into North Africa and West Asia roughly at the same time as the main OoA migration but these do not seem particularly related to the main Eurasian haplogroups M and N, whose success must be understood not because they left Tropical Africa (others did too but remained restricted in Arabia and North Africa) but to having found a huge frontier available for expansion in South Asia and beyond.

    "when the closest distance to the exit .is the green mountain in cyrenaica, Lybia, at the eastern end of the Atlas mountain range ?"

    Well the "most natural" exit would be through Egypt and then the Fertile Crescent, right? However that area was inhabited by Neanderthals and there is not really any strong genetic signal telling us that they migrated that way. It's not impossible but I'd say that the track is hotter in South Arabia, with many L(xM,N) lineages that look pretty old and also because of the short stem of M specially and to lesser extent N (what suggests a rapid migration).

    The debate remains open but IMO NW Africa doesn't seem to have played any starring role in any case. The controversy is about the Nile-Jordan-Euphrates or the Yemen-Oman route (or both).

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  13. @NOTRE TERRE QUEBECOISE

    Je suis marocain et il n'y a aucune différence entre un marocain et un algerien lorsqu'on les prends de deux régions à climat identique et à latitude similaire(exemple le Rif et la Kabylie)
    Les rifains sont aussi proches des Européens que les Kabyles.Vous pouvez consulter ces photos de rifains:

    http://farm1.static.flickr.com/157/352199707_db7826bf6a.jpg

    http://images3.hiboox.com/images/1408/ww21e2oi.jpg

    http://rpmedia.ask.com/ts?u=/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Berberboypd1.jpg/94px-Berberboypd1.jpg


    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_42ffYlgEnXw/TOKoYrRYPnI/AAAAAAAAAGM/JhFAF5kzgXE/s1600/Ibrahim-Afellay.jpg

    http://images3.hiboox.com/images/1108/c7b5yvsi.jpg

    http://www.emu.dk/elever4-6/humfag/koen_etnicitet/billeder/portratter_voksne/karim_zaza_292.jpg

    http://www.twentefiles.nl/foto/faouzielbrazi.jpg

    ReplyDelete

I've chosen to let people comment freely on my posts. Nevertheless, you'll lose your time taunting me and calling me a fascist (which I'm really not) : I pray you to read my introduction which will reassure that my intentions genuinely aim at achieving amateurish knowledge. I understand that you may not share my passion for the history of the peopling of the World, just don't let me know as clear conscience gained by bashing a humble documentary work is useless.